3.4. Type Annotation Callable

  • Before Python 3.9 you need from typing import List, Set, Tuple, Dict

  • Since Python 3.9: PEP 585 -- Type Hinting Generics In Standard Collections

3.4.1. Parameters

Required:

>>> def add(a: int, b: int):
...     return a + b

Optional:

>>> def add(a: int = 1, b: int = 1):
...     return a + b

3.4.2. Union

  • Since Python 3.10: PEP 604 -- Allow writing union types as X | Y

>>> def add(a: int | float, b: int | float) -> int | float:
...     return a + b

3.4.3. Alias

  • Since Python 3.10: PEP 604 -- Allow writing union types as X | Y

>>> number = int | float
>>>
>>> def add(a: number, b: number) -> number:
...     return a + b

3.4.4. Return

Type:

>>> def say_hello() -> str:
...     return 'My name... José Jiménez'

Optional:

>>> def find(character, text) -> int | None:
...     position = text.find(character)
...     if position == -1:
...         return None
...     return position

Exception:

>>> def on_timeout() -> Exception:
...     raise TimeoutError
>>> def on_timeout() -> TimeoutError:
...     raise TimeoutError

Unions:

>>> def find(character, text) -> int | ValueError:
...     position = text.find(character)
...     if position == -1:
...         raise ValueError
...     return position

3.4.5. Literal

SetUp:

>>> from typing import Literal

Definition:

>>> def open(filename: str, mode: Literal['r','w','a']) -> None:
...     pass

Usage:

>>> open('data.csv', mode='w')  # mypy: OK
>>> open('data.csv', mode='r')  # mypy: OK
>>> open('data.csv', mode='a')  # mypy: OK
>>> open('data.csv', mode='x')  # mypy: ERROR

3.4.6. Callable

SetUp:

>>> from typing import Callable

Define:

>>> def add(a: int, b: int) -> int:
...     ...
>>>
>>> x: Callable = add
>>> x: Callable[..., int] = add
>>> x: Callable[[int,int], int] = add

Parameter:

>>> def run(func: Callable[[int, int], float]):
...     ...

3.4.7. Iterator

  • All Generators are Iterators

  • Generator[yield_type, send_type, return_type]

  • Iterator[yield_type]

SetUp:

>>> from typing import Iterator, Generator

Generator type annotations:

>>> def fib(n: int) -> Generator[int, None, None]:
...     a, b = 0, 1
...     while a < n:
...         yield a
...         a, b = b, a + b

All Generators are Iterators so you can write:

>>> def fib(n: int) -> Iterator[int]:
...     a, b = 0, 1
...     while a < n:
...         yield a
...         a, b = b, a + b

3.4.8. Annotations

>>> def add(a: int, b: int) -> int:
...     return a + b
>>>
>>>
>>> add.__annotations__
{'a': <class 'int'>, 'b': <class 'int'>, 'return': <class 'int'>}

3.4.9. Errors

  • Python will execute without even warning

  • Your IDE and mypy et. al. will yield errors

>>> def add(a: int, b: int) -> int:
...     return a + b
>>>
>>>
>>> add('Mark', 'Watney')
'MarkWatney'

3.4.10. Good Engineering Practices

>>> def add(a: int | float,
...         b: int | float,
...         ) -> int | float:
...     return a + b

3.4.11. Literal String

  • Since Python 3.11: PEP 675 -- Arbitrary Literal String Type

SetUp:

>>> from typing import LiteralSting  

Definition:

>>> 
... def echo(text: LiteralString):
...     ...
...
... name = 'Mark'
...
... echo('hello Mark')             # ok
... echo('hello ' + name)          # ok
... echo('hello %s' % name))       # error
... echo('hello {}'.format(name))  # error
... echo('hello {name}')           # error

Use Case:

>>> 
... def execute(sql: LiteralString) -> ...
...     ...
...
...
... execute("SELECT * FROM users")                          # ok
... execute("SELECT * FROM " + table_name)                  # ok
... execute(f"SELECT * FROM users WHERE name={username}")   # error

3.4.12. Future

  • PEP 563 -- Postponed Evaluation of Annotations

Postponed Evaluation of Annotations:

>>> def add(a: int, b: int) -> int:
...     return a + b
>>>
>>>
>>> add.__annotations__  
{'a': 'int', 'b': 'int', 'return': 'int'}

3.4.13. Use Case - 0x01

>>> def valid_email(email: str) -> str | Exception:
...     if '@' in email:
...         return email
...     else:
...         raise ValueError('Invalid Email')
>>>
>>>
>>> valid_email('mwatney@nasa.gov')
'mwatney@nasa.gov'
>>>
>>> valid_email('mwatney_at_nasa.gov')
Traceback (most recent call last):
ValueError: Invalid Email

3.4.14. Use Case - 0x02

>>> def find(text: str, what: str) -> int | None:
...     position = text.find(what)
...     if position == -1:
...         return None
...     else:
...         return position
>>>
>>>
>>> find('Python', 'x')
>>> find('Python', 'o')
4

3.4.15. Use Case - 0x03

>>> from requests import get, Response as Result
>>>
>>>
>>> def fetch(url: str,
...           on_success: Callable[[Result], None],
...           on_error: Callable[[Exception], None],
...           ) -> None:
...     try:
...         result: Result = get(url)
...     except Exception as err:
...         on_error(err)
...     else:
...         on_success(result)
>>> def handle_result(result: Result) -> None:
...     print('Success', result)
>>>
>>> def handle_error(error: Exception) -> None:
...     print('Error', error)
>>>
>>>
>>> fetch(
...     url='https://python.astrotech.io',
...     on_success=handle_result,
...     on_error=handle_error,
... )  
>>> fetch(
...     url='https://python.astrotech.io',
...     on_success=lambda result: print(result),
...     on_error=lambda error: print(error),
... )  

3.4.16. Further Reading